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Jak pisać opowiadanie?

JAK PISAĆ OPOWIADANIE




Pisząc opowiadanie (tzw. short story lub narrative composition) i nie tylko opowiadanie, zawsze należy pamiętać o tym, by zachować odpowiednią formę pracy, oraz o tym, by dostosować jej treść do zadanego tematu. Poza tym należy postarać się, aby praca była ciekawa i do tego niebanalna.

FORMA OPOWIADANIA

 

KOMPOZYCJA


1. Jak każda praca pisemna opowiadanie powinno mieć: tytuł, wstęp, rozwinięcie i zakończenie.


            a) Tytuł ma być "catchy", czyli chwytliwy. Musi być tak dobry, by każdy czytelnik (egzaminator sprawdzający Waszą pracę) już na początku zechciał pracę przeczytać. Dobry tytuł zachęca czytelnika do śledzenia Waszych przemyśleń i od razu - na początku dostajecie parę punktów więcej! Tytuł powinien również oddawać treść opowiadania, dlatego najlepiej jest zastanowić się nad nim po napisaniu całej pracy. Oczywiście tytuł powinien znaleĽć się na początku opowiadania i zostać podkreślony.

            b) We wstępie (1-3 zdania) należy wprowadzić czytelnika w czas i miejsce akcji. Wstęp powinien również zainteresować tych odbiorców, do których skierowane jest Wasze opowiadanie (czyli egzaminatora).

            c) W rozwinięciu należy przedstawić wydarzenia i opisy miejsc, uczuć, sytuacji itp. BądĽ krytyczny i postaw się w sytuacji czytelnika - powinieneś go zainteresować tym, co piszesz. Narracja, czyli przedstawianie wydarzeń, powinna zdecydowanie dominować nad opisami osób czy sytuacji, które należy rozsądnie włączyć w tekst, tak aby zachować harmonię kompozycji. Oznacza to, że w Waszym opowiadaniu musi się coś dziać. Akcja powinna zostać zawiązana, osiągnąć pod koniec punkt kulminacyjny, a potem rozwiązanie. Opisy, wspomnienia i rozważania natury egzystencjalno-psychologicznej niech będą tylko uzupełnieniem, ozdobą, a nie motywem przewodnim Waszej pracy. Nie piszecie eseju, ani konspektu lekcji w szkole średniej, tylko opowiadanie, więc niech się w nim coś dzieje. Każdy szczegół czy motyw, który wprowadzacie powinien czemuś służyć i wiązać się z głównym motywem narracji. Wypiszcie sobie ciekawe zwroty i określenia, które mogą zostać użyte w waszym opowiadaniu (na maturze pisemnej można mieć słownik). Przydatne mogą okazać się zwroty służące logicznemu ułożeniu narracji:

  • na wstępie:

    • To begin with

    • At first

    • Initially

    • At the outset

  • gdy mowa o o wydarzeniach wcześniejszych:

    • Before this

    • Formerly

    • Prior to this

  • kiedy wydarzenia dzieją się w tym samym czasie:

    • Meanwhile

    • While

    • Simultaneously

    • At about the same time

    • At the roughly the same time as this

    • While this was happening

  • gdy wydarzenia następują po sobie:

    • Just then

    • It was now that

    • Next

    • After this

    • Afterwards

    • Later

    • Subsequently

    • Not longer after this

  • w zakończeniu:

    • In the end

    • As it turned out

    • Finally

    • Eventually

    • At last

            d) W zakończeniu napiszcie koniecznie, co wynikło z przedstawionych wydarzeń i/lub jaki wpływ mają one na teraĽniejszość. Na przykład w opowiadaniu, w którym ktoś pomógł potrzebującemu, zakończenie może być takie:

"And since then Mark has never tried to help people in need again."

albo

"And since then Mark has been helping people in need every day."

            e) Jeśli temat określa długość opowiadania np. 120 do 180 słów, nie wolno tego limitu przekraczać o więcej niż 10%.

N.B. Na egzaminach FCE tematy opowiadań najczęściej zobowiązują Was do wykorzystania na końcu lub na początku opowiadania podanego fragmentu, np.:

Write a story which would begin or finish with the following sentence: "Every night thousands of people gathered at the square and watched the brightening sky."

Wówczas może okazać się, że nie będziecie mogli napisać wstępu lub zakończenia w przedstawionej powyżej, klasycznej formie. Należy starać się dobrze wkomponować zadany fragment w tekst. Nie wolno nic w nim zmieniać, żeby dostosować go do własnego tekstu - nie wolno zmieniać interpunkcji, poszczególnych wyrazów, wprowadzać zdań wtrąconych etc.

GRAMATYKA


2. Jeśli chodzi o formę opowiadania, to istnieją również pewne wymogi związane z gramatyką. Należy:

            a) Konsekwentnie stosować tylko i wyłącznie czasy przeszłe: Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect Simple, Past Perfect Continuous. Inne czasy można stosować jedynie w dialogach (np. 'How are you?' he asked.) i w zakończeniu (np. After everything that happened to me I have never gone out at night alone.). Aby prawidłowo zastosować konkretny czas musisz przemyśleć chronologię wydarzeń w swojej pracy; zrób więc najpierw plan całego opowiadania i poukładaj wydarzenia według kolejności.

            b) Czasowniki określające czynności, np. "leave", najlepiej umieścić w czasach Past Simple i Past Perfect Simple i stosować do przedstawiania wydarzeń ( He left his house and met his friend whom he had not seen for years).

            c) W opisach stosujemy: czasowniki określające stany w czasie Past Simple np. "he was", "she had" oraz czasowniki określające czynności w czasach Past Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous np. "birds were singing and I was dancing". ( It was late. The wind was blowing. Large puddles on the ground proved that it had been raining heavily.)

 

            d) Krótkie zdania łącz takimi zwrotami, jak; and, or, then, so, which, whose, whom, who. Pozwoli ci to zachować spójność i sprawi, że twoja praca będzie bardziej interesująca. Oto przykłady:

The last train had gone so he had to hire a car, which was very sophisticated.

First she took a gun out of his pocket then aimed it at him.

The girl who had killed her brother was now in a real trouble.

He did it in spite of many difficulties, which really surprised me.


            e) Uważajcie na interpunkcję dialogów. W angielskim występują inne znaki interpunkcyjne. Każda nowa wypowiedĽ zobowiązuje Was do rozpoczęcia nowego akapitu. Oto przykłady:
'How are you?' she asked.
'I'm fine,' he said.
'You look,' she replied,'as if you had seen a ghost.'
'Don't tell me!' he laughed.
A poza tym, użyjcie czasem mowy zależnej - Reported Speech.

N.B. Nie należy przesadzać z dialogami. Traktujcie je jedynie jako ozdobę opowiadania i rozsądnie przeplatajcie go mową zależną (Reported Speech).

            f) Form skróconych czasowników to be ('m, 's, 're), to have ('s, 've,'d) itd. można używać jedynie w dialogach. Narracja wymaga raczej stylu formalnego, a więc wszelkie skróty nie są odpowiednie.

TRE¦Ć OPOWIADANIA
      

Jeśli chodzi o TRE¦Ć, zawsze należy się upewnić czy rozumiemy temat! Jeśli są wątpliwości, wystarczy zapytać egzaminatora.


Piszcie na temat! Nigdy nie odbiegajcie od tematu! W Waszej pracy każde zdanie powinno mieć rację bytu.


W egzaminach FCE tematy opowiadań zobowiązują nieraz do wykorzystania na końcu lub na początku opowiadania podanego fragmentu, np.

Write a story which would begin or finish with the following sentence: "Every night thousands of people gathered at the square and watched the brightening sky."

Starajcie się dobrze wkomponować zadany fragment w tekst. W przypadku tego tematu musicie na pewno w treści opowiadania nawiązać do następujących podtematów:


      Dlaczego ludzie zbierali się na placu?
      Co to był za plac? (zmusza Was do tego przedimek określony the)
      Dlaczego patrzyli na niebo?
      Czym niebo było rozjaśniane?
      
Przy każdym tego typu temacie postarajcie się przeanalizować zadane Wam zakończenie i zadajcie sobie parę istotnych pytań (tak, jak powyżej). W treści uwzględnijcie odpowiedzi na te pytania.



PRZYKŁADY OPOWIADAŃ

zaczerpnięte z serwisu edukacyjnego 6 plus.

TEMAT: Write a story about the worst holiday you have ever had.

My Dead Boyfriend
       The worst holiday I have ever had was three years ago. I was at a sailing camp. We had free evenings, so we were going to discos in the village near our camp.
       One day a boy asked me to dance with him. I didn't want to do it, because he was wearing sports clothes and trainers and I thought he was a "dresiarz". ("Dresiarz" is a boy who belongs to a special group. They like disco polo and can be very brutal.) So I said: 'No, I can't dance with you, because I'm very tired.'
      He said:
      'You don't want to dance with me, because you think I am a "dresiarz". I'm not. I'm from the sailing camp, which is near yours. I fell into water today and my clothes are wet. This is the only thing to wear which I had."
So we danced, and of course I fell in love with him.
      Next day I went to that disco again. But he did not come. His friend told me that he fell into water again, but that time he drowned and was dead.
I was shocked and since that moment I have never fallen in love again.

Life is brutal
       The holiday I am writing about was the worst in my life. It happened last year. I stayed in Warsaw, because my parents had to work and I did not want to go to any camp or anything like that. I said:
       'Just give me some money and I will have a good time in Warsaw.'
       My friend Kazik also had to stay in Warsaw, so we were spending the time together. We hoped for having good fun with some girls at the swimming pool, discos or concerts.
      One day we went to a swimming pool and met some nice girls. They were from Poznań. We agreed to meet in the evening and to go to the cinema.
       We bought the tickets and waited. When they came, we went in.
       During the film I suddenly felt very sleepy and fell asleep at once. When somebody woke me up, the lights were on and the film had finished. My friend Kazik was sleeping near me. The girls were gone. And our wallets with all our money for the whole holidays were gone, too. I think the girls gave us some drug gas and stole our money.
       I spent the rest of the holiday at home - no swimming pool, disco or concert. I could only go for a walk with my friend Kazik.

TEMAT: Write a story which would begin or finish with the following sentence: "Every night thousands of people gathered at the square and watched the brightening sky."

      On the 1st January 2001 a huge spaceship crashed on the Red Square in the center of Moscow. However, it was not the old, used and broken Soviet station "Mir". It was an alien spacecraft.
      Two aliens left the spacecraft and started walking down the square towards the Gorki Park. They were soon arrested by the police and during a detailed interrogation admitted that a huge invasion was being prepared. They had been sent as scouts to help the others find the best landing spot for the alien armada. Apparently, the Red Square was the largest even piece of ground in the center of the largest Euro-Asian continent, which they wanted to conquer first. That is why they had chosen the Red Square as a perfect landing spot.
      In spite of the efforts from all the best psychologists and all the best detectives, in spite of all the most sophisticated tortures, the Aliens could not reveal when the invasion would start exactly. And it was not because the methods applied were inefficient. They just could not understand our system of time measurement, so they were not able to determine the invasion day according to our solar calendar.
      'There's nothing we can do but wait!' declared Commander Lieutenant Mikchail Septimovich Karakanow. 'The only thing we know is that the arrival of such a huge armada of big spacecraft must be preceded by a substantial reflection of the solar light, which will be visible on cloudless nights. In a nut shell: the sky is said to get brighter and brighter a few weeks before the invasion day.'
      Having said that the Commander added that the Russian army will do their best to defend our planet, which was more than enough to calm down and reassure the population of several countries, namely Russian Federation, Belorus, China, "Democratic" Korea, Libya, Cuba annbsp;   He said:
      'You don't want to dance with me, because you think I am a "dresiarz". I'm not. I'm from the sailing camp, which is near yours. I fell into water today and my clothes are wet. This is the only thing to wear which I had."
So we danced, and of course I fell in love with him.
      Next day I went to that disco again. But he did not come. His friend told me that he fell into water again, but that time he drowned and was dead.
I was shocked and since that moment I have never fallen in love again.

Life is brutal
       The holiday I am writing about was the worst in my life. It happened last year. I stayed in Warsaw, because my parents had to work and I did not want to go to any camp or anything like that. I said:
       'Just give me some money and I will have a good time in Warsaw.'
       My friend Kazik also had to stay in Warsaw, so we were spending the time together. We hoped for having good fun with some girls at the swimming pool, discos or concerts.
      One day we went to a swimming pool and met some nice girls. They were from Poznań. We agreed to meet in the evening and to go to the cinema.
       We bought the tickets and waited. When they came, we went in.
       During the film I suddenly felt very sleepy and fell asleep at once. When somebody woke me up, the lights were on and the film had finished. My friend Kazik was sleeping near me. The girls were gone. And our wallets with all our money for the whole holidays were gone, too. I think the girls gave us some drug gas and stole our money.
       I spent the rest of the holiday at home - no swimming pool, disco or concert. I could only go for a walk with my friend Kazik.

TEMAT: Write a story which would begin or finish with the following sentence: "Every night thousands of people gathered at the square and watched the brightening sky."

      On the 1st January 2001 a huge spaceship crashed on the Red Square in the center of Moscow. However, it was not the old, used and broken Soviet station "Mir". It was an alien spacecraft.
      Two aliens left the spacecraft and started walking down the square towards the Gorki Park. They were soon arrested by the police and during a detailed interrogation admitted that a huge invasion was being prepared. They had been sent as scouts to help the others find the best landing spot for the alien armada. Apparently, the Red Square was the largest even piece of ground in the center of the largest Euro-Asian continent, which they wanted to conquer first. That is why they had chosen the Red Square as a perfect landing spot.
      In spite of the efforts from all the best psychologists and all the best detectives, in spite of all the most sophisticated tortures, the Aliens could not reveal when the invasion would start exactly. And it was not because the methods applied were inefficient. They just could not understand our system of time measurement, so they were not able to determine the invasion day according to our solar calendar.
      'There's nothing we can do but wait!' declared Commander Lieutenant Mikchail Septimovich Karakanow. 'The only thing we know is that the arrival of such a huge armada of big spacecraft must be preceded by a substantial reflection of the solar light, which will be visible on cloudless nights. In a nut shell: the sky is said to get brighter and brighter a few weeks before the invasion day.'
      Having said that the Commander added that the Russian army will do their best to defend our planet, which was more than enough to calm down and reassure the population of several countries, namely Russian Federation, Belorus, China, "Democratic" Korea, Libya, Cuba and a few others.
      The citizens of Moscow looked forward to witnessing the most spectacular air battle between Russian Air Force and the alien armada. In spite of many warnings from the Russian Ministry of Global Peace, nobody wanted to miss the sight of falling spacecraft shut down in flames by "our boys". Every night thousands of people gathered at the square and watched the brightening sky.


ĆWICZENIA

Spróbuj napisać na któryś z zamieszczonych poniżej tematów (120-180 słów jeśli chcesz zdać FCE, 250-350 jeśli chcesz zdać maturę).

1. Write a fairy tale you remember from your childhood.
2. Write a story about the worst holiday you have ever had.
3. The strangest thing which has ever happened to you.
4. Finish the story.

When I was passing the old graveyard, I heard the church clock striking twelve o'clock. It was midnight and pitch dark. The wind was icy and went right through my clothes. Suddenly I heard a sound from the other side of the wall, a kind of moaning... (Matura, Warszawa '99)

5. Tell the story of the night the lights went out. (Matura, Warszawa '98)
6. Write a story which would begin or finish with the following sentence:

Every night thousands of people gathered at the square and watched the brightening sky.(FCE)

7. Write about a person you sat next to on one of your long journeys. (Matura próbna, Warszawa '98)
8. A tour of a city on a gloomy day. (Matura próbna, Warszawa '97)
9. The world is a dangerous place to live nowadays. (Matura próbna, Warszawa '97)
10. Competition can do more harm than good. (Matura próbna, Kraków'98)
12. You have decided to enter a short story competition. Your entry must begin or end with the following words:

No matter what everybody thought about Clive, I knew he was a good fellow.

13. Write a story of the day which did most to your English.
14. Write a story which includes a sentence:

And then I just realized I was at the wrong time in the wrong place.

15. Write a story whose title would be:

One of my biggest mistakes...


 

» artykuł po angielsku o sztuce pisania wypracowań: How (not) to write an English composition